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听老外“神吐槽” : 中文学习想说爱你也容易
作者:管理员    发布于:2015-08-28 11:48:24    文字:【】【】【
 联合国教科文组织发布过一个排名,全世界最难学的语言就是中文,其次是希腊语,再是阿拉伯语。作为母语是中文的人是很难了解中文学习者的艰辛的。因此我们针对这一问题采访了一些在优信译培学习中文的外国人。外国人学习中文的难点到底在哪里?说中文难,到底难在哪里?让我们一起来听听他们的“神吐槽”吧!

    Liza Marchenco          Country: Ukrain     Native Language: Russian

    姓名:Liza Marchenco    国家:乌克兰母语:俄语

    Lisa吐槽汉语:

    1、For me studying Chinese is not so easy as other foreign languages because one word could have a lot of meanings and sometime people can't understand what exactly you want to say.

    2、Also each region has they own dialect, so even Chinese people can't understand each other

    3、The most difficult is tones, 4 different tones, if you say something in different tone - people won't understand you. In Russian language you could say one word in 10 tones and everybody will understand what you mean.

    4、And another world is world of characters… I don't know how much time you should spend to learn all the characters, probably all your life. And I don't understand why people make their language so difficult if they could write pinyin, they could write normal Latin, as other countries…

    So generally speaking, I should say, if you decided to learn Chinese, I wish you big patience!

    邹老师评价:

    俄语里面没有爆破音的概念,只有清音和浊音。特别是在发爆破音't','p'的时候, 非常容易错念成'd','b'。除此之外,中文四调更是普遍的问题:比如在说“他的车破了”这样的句子的时候,中国人每每听到都是“大的车波了” “我的秀机波了”。 虽然这种由于母语习惯造成的发音缺陷在短期内比较难改变,但是可以通过长时间的练习达到一定的效果。最直接的方法是在课堂上跟着老师念,多说多练。

    Lukas Baier          Country: Germany      Native Language: German/Portugese

    姓名:Lukas Baier     国家:德国母语:德语/葡萄牙语

    Lukas的吐槽:

    1、One of the biggest issues for me with Chinese is daily life conversation. Generally I don't understand anything people talk about if they are speaking among their friends. It is much different however when I am alone with a Chinese person. Especially when I am talking in Chinese with one friend, it's much easier for me to understand and to be understood.

    2、Learning new characters is a big issue for me, too. I feel like I am trying to memorize a picture, cause every character is different. People keep telling me that learning the radicals will make it easier…I haven't reached that level yet.

    3、Stroke orders really mess me up! I tried for a really long time to learn stroke orders, but I still make mistakes or use the wrong order.

    邹老师评价:

    1、对于第一个问题,中国人在日常对话中多少会带有一些自己的语言习惯,尽简尽快,来自不同地区的人还可能会夹杂一些方言和俚语;所以和一群中国朋友交谈时,外国人通常会对自己不熟悉的话题用语感到陌生,甚至有种被“排斥”的感觉。但是当他们单独与中国人对话时,为了易于外国人理解,中国人会根据对方的汉语熟练程度调整自己的语言习惯,尽详尽慢,摈弃生僻字词以及一些流行语。这种对话模式比较贴近汉语教学中的课程对话。

    解决办法:可以借鉴中国人看美剧的方式,通过文化理解对话的方式以及日常的语用场景,并尝试看有中文字幕的电影。

    2、因为中文中的许多汉字都是象形字,所以把汉字看成图像会是很好的学习方法。比如,在低年级汉语教学过程中,“大”字的教学,为了加深学生对这个汉字的印象,我会展开双手双脚,给学生直观的感觉:“大”就像一个双手伸平,双脚岔开的人。另外,部首学习法对于一些汉字基础不够好的外国学生来说依然是个难题,因为他们很难理解一些部首的意思。就像英语单词的前缀后缀一样,部首也有特定的意义:例如“氵”部,往往包含于与水相关的汉字,如“江”、“湖”、“海”。

    解决方法:可以参考新华字典,有规律地学习一些部首;了解部首的意义之后,再将相关汉字归类并带入语境中反复练习,最终达到熟练运用的学习效果。

    3、几乎所有外国学生在学写汉字的时候基本都会遇到笔画顺序的问题;哪怕是中国人自己也不能保证笔画顺序完全正确。当然,笔画顺序不会影响汉字的形成,但是纠正一些不良的书写习惯将有助于熟练掌握汉字。汉字的书写有基本的规则,如右图:

    解决办法:临摹课本以及老师上课书写汉字的顺序。

    Khadija Torbay          country: Ghana       Native Language: English

    姓名:Khadija Torbay     国家:加纳母语:英语

    Khadija 吐槽汉语:

    1、The Chinese dialects are so many. What we learn in class is sometimes quite different from what the Chinese people speak in your area of living. This makes it quite difficult to communicate with the local people and pick up the language faster.

    2、The tones are very confusing. This makes the Chinese speaking very difficult. I personally have difficulty in pronouncing the 1st and 2nd tone.

    3、The Chinese characters are so many and this is what makes it more difficult than English because English has only 26 alphabets and Chinese has over 40,000 characters. Learning the characters needs a lot of practice and time and even with this, trying to grasp and recollect the complicated characters is not easy. “

    邹老师评价:

    1、针对第一个问题,众所周知,中国地域广阔,地区间有各种方言土语;来自不同地区的中国人在说话时不仅会带有方言尾音,语音和语速也会有所区别。汉语课程中,由于老师教学的语速是正常的,发音是标准的普通话,所以当外国学生走出课堂,他们会对实际交流中的汉语对话感到困扰。例如在教学过程中,曾经有一个学生问我,为什么中国人总是喜欢说”nigga“(美国俚语”黑人“的意思),这样的称呼让他觉得很粗鲁。后来我发现他们所听到的是”nigga“其实是”那个“(当语速过快时容易听成”nigga“)。

    解决方法:多融入实际的汉语语境,多听多说。

    2、对于第二个问题,外国学生说汉语容易”洋腔洋调“,这往往是因为母语的”负迁移“问题造成的。四声中最难掌握的是阳平(阳声)和上声(三声),而他们通常会误读为阴平(一声)或者去声(四声)。

    解决办法:请专业汉语教师帮助纠正发音部位和发音方法,并多加练习。

    3、虽然汉字很多,记忆起来有一定难度,但是大部分的汉字是有偏旁部首可以归类成组的。因此在学习汉字过程中,多积累一些偏旁部首会有助于学习书写。

    解决办法:可以试着结合有西方文化背景的中文有西方文化背景的课文学习汉字,并且不断听写、抄写加以熟记。
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